7 wonders of the world ancient
8 wonders of the world
Budget DirectTHE LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIAThe materials of this ruined structure – designed by Sostratus of Cnidus in the 3rd century B.C. – were used by a Mamluk sultan to build a fortress in the 15th century A.D. Until then it was a cylindrical tower, on an octagonal center and a square base. Until then it was a cylindrical tower, on an octagonal center and a square base.The lighthouse of Alexandria
Budget DirectMAUSOLEUS IN HALICARNASUSThe regent Mausolus was the one who ordered the construction (in 353 B.C.) in Halicarnassus (present-day Turkey) of what was to be his own tomb, a marble structure that blended Greek, Egyptian and Middle Eastern architectural principles. To it we owe the generic term mausoleum.The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
mausoleum of halicarnassus
Of these, today, only the pyramids of Giza in Egypt are preserved, while of the «lesser known» wonders (the statue of Zeus, the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, etc.) we have only legends and timid historical references.
The largest of the three pyramids of Giza, the pyramid of Cheops, occupies an area of 48,000 square meters and rises up to 146 meters high and 230 meters wide, made of huge, heavy granite blocks one meter high.
Together with the pyramids in the plain of Giza: the sphinx, a sculpture representing a lion with a human face, is believed to represent the pharaoh Khafra, as he wears on his head the typical klaft (mantle worn by the pharaohs).
These pediments, together with the metopes, will be considered not only the most important sculptural group of the severe style, but the most remarkable sculptural series of Greek classical art along with the Parthenon.
Their style, for its plasticism, for its balance in the choice of subjects, in the composition and in the gradation of the effects of chiaroscuro, for its essential representation, without being detailed, of the human body, for its majestic and noble serenity, and for its harmony of forms, manages to be the embodiment of the ideals of Greek art.
7 wonders of the modern world
The seven wonders of the ancient world were a set of architectural and sculptural works that Greek authors, especially those of the Hellenistic period, considered worthy of being visited. Over time different lists were drawn up, but the definitive one was not fixed until the Dutch painter Maerten van Heemskrerck made seven paintings in the 16th century representing the seven wonders, which were: the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, the Statue of Zeus in Olympia, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
It is usually considered that a first testimony of the seven wonders of the world was collected in the Laterculi Alexandrini (second century B.C.), but the papyrus where it has been preserved (Berlin papyrus 13044) is in poor condition and the list appears incomplete, since it only includes the Mausoleum, the pyramids and the temple of Artemis. I have rested my eyes on the mausoleum, the Pyramids and the Temple of Artemis.
I have rested my eyes upon the wall of sweet Babylon, which is a causeway for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Sun, and the huge work of the lofty Pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis, there perched in the clouds, those other marbles lost their luster, and I said: apart from from Olympus, «the Sun never ever seemed so great» after seeing my muse.
7 wonders of the ancient and modern world
That is why many historians, archaeologists and travelers have always been interested in cataloging the great wonders of the world. In the case of the wonders of the ancient world, the list was finally reduced to seven.
The current of historians who do not think it was a kind of Garden of Eden imagined by Greek and Roman writers claim that the gardens fell into oblivion and Alexander the Great found them almost demolished in the fourth century B.C. Finally, they would have been destroyed by King Evemero, when he conquered Babylon in 126 BC.
The statue represented the god Zeus seated on his throne. His skin was made of ivory and his cloaks of gold leaf. Standing 12 meters high, it was intended to inspire and motivate the faithful who came to pray at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.
It was destroyed by a series of earthquakes and its ruins survived until 1494 AD, when its stones were used by the Knights of the Order of Malta to build the castle of Bodrum.